Harder types of resin - mostly from Morocco and Lebanon are made by sifting mature cannabis flowers through a series of sieves until only a resinous powder remains. This powder is compressed and heated to allow the resins to melt and stick together forming blocks. The resin is then compressed into blocks and sealed with cellophane or cloth. The result is a hard, brittle hash, usually light yellow to brown and sometimes even reddish brown. Generally, the really hard and yellow stuff which is cerebral is old Lebanese on the whole, and the slightly darker brown hash is usually Moroccan. Apparently, new Lebanese is often also malleable.
The method used in Southern Asia involves rubbing the living flowers of the cannabis plants with hands, a leather apron or other implements. The aim is to get the soft and sticky resins to stick to a surface which can be taken somewhere to be processed and collated. These are then scraped off the skin or leather and rolled into lumps of various sizes and compressed into blocks. The color is usually dark-brown to black on the surface and lighter on the interior - air contact makes this hash go darker in color. The consistency is normally soft and a lump can usually be moulded into various shapes or sausages.
Usually, the potency of seized hash varies from under 1% THC to 26% THC. Typically the strength is 3% to 8% THC, with the rest being vegetable matter. Remember that THC is not the only drug in cannabis - there are various others such as CBD and CBN which all add to the effect.
Cultivation: Hashish is produced practically everywhere in and around Afghanistan. The best kinds of Hash originate from the Northern provinces between Hindu Kush and the Russian border (Balkh, Mazar-i-Sharif). As tourist in Afghanistan it will be very difficult to be allowed to see Cannabis-Fields or Hash Production.
Production: The plants which are used for Hash production are very small and bushy Indicas. In Afghanistan Hashish is pressed by hand under addition of a small quantity of tea or water. The Hashish is worked on until it becomes highly elastic and has a strong aromatic smell. In Afghanistan the product is stored in the form of Hash-Balls (because a round ball has the less contact with air), however, before being shipped, the Hash is pressed in 100g slabs. Good qualities of Afghani are signed with the stem of the producing family. Sometimes Hash of this kind is sold as Royal Afghani.
Color: Black on the outside, dark greenish or brown inside. Can sometimes look kind of grayish on the outside when left in contact with the air.
Smell: Spicy to very spicy.
Taste: Very spicy, somewhat harsh on the throat. Afghani can induce lots of coughing in inexperienced users.
Consistency: Soft, can be kneaded very easily.
Effect: Almost narcotic, produces a very physical and stony high.
Potency: Potent, sometimes very potent. It's easy to underestimate the potency of Afghani since the high takes about 5 minutes to reach it's full potential. (1.7%-6.5% THC)
Availability: Quite rare, especially good qualities. Beside Moroccan Hash, Afghani is the most common kind of Hash on the European market. The price is usually higher than Moroccan but quality differs greatly. If I have the choice of Moroccan or Afghani then I would go for the stonier and more narcotic Afghani.
Various: The softest Afghani isn't always the best - coconut or other oils are often added in the originating country. There is also some Hash-Oil which is being produced from Afghani, usually the quality is excellent. Most people I know are bored of Afghani if they have to smoke it for a long time, on the other side there are people who love this stuff. Beware: Turkish Hash is sometimes offered under the name of Red Afghani.
Cultivation: Cannabis is cultivated nearly everywhere around India.
Production: In India Hash is produced by carefully rubbing the female buds between the hands. The resin is rolled in Hash-Balls, before shipment it's pressed in the usual slabs.
Color: Black on the outside, dark greenish/brown inside.
Smell: Spicy to very spicy. Distinctive aroma.
Taste: Very spicy, somewhat harsh on the throat but definitively less so than Afghani.
Consistency: Very soft, can be kneaded easily like Afghani. Sometimes quite powdery though always dense.
Effect: Very stony and physical high. Cerebral.
Potency: Potent to very potent. Like Nepali, Charas is almost always good smoke. (10-26% THC)
Availability: Very rare, from time to time very small quantities become available. Most Hash of this kind is imported by private travellers to India. As expected the price is very high, in the range of Nepali. Charas is usually sold as a 'finger', which is a sausage shaped piece of hash.